Insémination artificielle

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass"). The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2–6 days, and is then transferred to the same or another woman's uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.

IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for infertility treatment and gestational surrogacy, in which a fertilised egg is implanted into a surrogate's uterus, and the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. Some countries banned or otherwise regulate the availability of IVF treatment, giving rise to fertility tourism. Restrictions on availability of IVF include costs and age to carry a healthy pregnancy to term. IVF is mostly attempted if less invasive or expensive options have failed or are unlikely to work.

No particular anomaly of children has so far been reported after this mode of fertilization. Multiple pregnancies are frequent, related to the implantation of several embryos, intended to increase the chances of success. In addition, the cases of prematurity, source of various handicaps unthinkable a priori by the couple, would be numerous.

A psychological follow-up of the candidate couple allows an elaboration of the bruises and conflicts that could induce an infertility often long. It should facilitate a good relationship in the parents and unborn child triad, which should occupy as much as possible a central place. It also happens that these "children of science" are not taken by the couple.

Recent studies show, significantly, that the degree of conjugal harmony in the child project predicts the success of fertilization, and that, "a contrario", the anxiety of the woman is associated with its failure. Long-term research is essential.





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